Study Guide 10
THE TRIUMPH OF WHITE MEN'S DEMOCRACY
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SUMMARY: By the 1830s, the US was a democratic society with notable limitations for women and African Americans. Democratic ideals affected all parts of society from politics and economics to the arts. Andrew Jackson was hailed as a true man of the people and was hoped by "the common man" to carry out their Democratic agenda.
NOTE: know the difference between democratic and Democratic, especially when the word is used at the start of a sentence.
Look up the definition of democracy
Painting: What's the meaning of the title to the painting?
DEMOCRATIC SPACE: THE NEW HOTELS
How were large hotels a fitting reflection and symbol of American society?
v- American plan for hotels - this is different from Clay's American Plan
DEMOCRACY IN THEORY AND PRACTICE (274)
V - democracy - another definition
Why did the Founding Fathers reject their own definition of democracy?
v - natural aristocracy
what was the democratic impulse? 1) popular sovereignty
2) social leveling
v- popular sovereignty
disappearance of inherited social ranks
Alexis de Tocqueville - "Democracy in America"
- we will read something from DiA.
v - spirit of deference
What's the difference between equality of opportunity vs. equality of reward?
Democracy and Society
"equality was the governing principle of American society"
what did it mean in practice?
v - affronted
v - blue-blooded
v - livery
why did the term "servant" disappear?
How was dress seen by outsiders as a sign that there was only one social class?
v - periwigs
v - pantaloons
v - gentility
v - finery
How was there an economic inequality?
What was the role of the tavern in the early republic?
In the painting, what do you think the woman and child are saying to the man?
"all white males were equal before the law and at the polls." How was this so radical?
How did the idea of equality affect the medical, legal and religious professions?
What role did the press play in democratic leveling?
v - venue
why were editors of newspapers such influential people in this era?
Answer these two questions to understand this section.
1) How was the democratic spirit found in literature,
2) What did the serious writers and landscape painters hope to achieve through their art?
Terms/Concepts to know from this subsection
v - Romantic movement in America
sentimental novels were written by and for whom?
How were women portrayed in "sentimental novels" and in the theatre?
v – genre
v – genre painting
William Sidney Mount
George Caleb Bingham - how were both considered democratic painters
Why Greek style of architecture?
v - façade
Painting - what's going on at 12:15 in the morning?
Painting - famous "Kindred Spirits" by Asher Durand
v - kindred
* v - Hudson River School
Why are these artists identified with this time period?
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - poet - famous one about Paul Revere
James Russell Lowell - poet
Oliver Wendell Holmes - poet
What did these poets try to do?
R. W. Emerson - what was his philosophy? - famous Transcendentalist
v - lyceums
N. Hawthorne - "The Scarlet Letter" (1850)
H. Melville - "Moby Dick" (1851)
What were H's and M's view of life?
Great landscape painters
Frederick Edwin Church -
what did they hope to accomplish?
Edgar Allen Poe - first mystery writer and Gothic horror stories, "The Raven"
v - piety
Walt Whitman - poet for the democratic spirit - but way too modern for the times
* v- antebellum - this has a different meaning from the War of 1812 ante bellum
Democratic Political Institutions
v- "universal white manhood suffrage"
what was the new style of politicking?
Why did M. Van Buren regard a two-party system essential to a democratic government?
Purpose of the "loyal opposition"
v - caucuses
v - ad hoc
How did the Panic of 1819 create popular interest in the government's economic policy?
v - venture capital
What were the two points of view about "power-hungry conspirators"?
v - gull
Which party believes in an active government support for commerce and industry or
Which party believes in passive government support allowing for "laissez-faire" and free
Labor Radicalism and Equal Rights
Why did working men's parties and trade unions emerge
during the late 1820s and 1830s?
Producers vs. parasites
what three reforms did trade unionists want?
v - Mechanics Union of Trade Associations - claim to fame?
v - strike
why would the Panic of 1837 destroy unions?
What was the precedent set by these early unions?
JACKSON AND THE POLITICS OF DEMOCRACY (280)
v - JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY
The election of 1824 and JQ Adams' Administration
Could he be considered the wrong man at the wrong time?
v - pipe dream
Why did nearly everyone like the new tariff of 1828?
Can you figure out why the Jacksonians were in favor of a higher tariff?
v - TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS
v - logrolling
How did logrolling get the tariff of 1828 passed and create a strain in the south?
Jackson Comes to Power
PAINTING - amazing painting of AJ
how is he made to symbolize a more egalitarian society?
VP - Calhoun
SoS - Van Buren
party = Democrat
How did the election of 1828 see the birth of a new era in mass democracy?
v - mudslinging
How were Jackson and JQ Adams portrayed by their parties?
How is Jackson described?
v - mandate
v - zeal
* v - spoils system
Not the first time it is done but how did he defend its practice?
v - intrinsic
Peggy Eaton affair - simple story but tremendous ramifications
What did AJ hope to accomplish concerning the Native Americans who lived on the eastern side of the Mississippi river?
Why was the Cherokee nation an obstacle to his plans for relocation?
According to AJ, when were Indians children and when were they savage beasts?
v - roughshod
v - bludgeon
v - condoned
* Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
TRAIL OF TEARS (1838-1839) - see map for more info
The Nullification Crisis
Know the story of this crisis
v - "peculiar institution"
What did nationalism mean to AJ'?
What's the tension found in these two quotes: "Our Union: It must be preserved" vs.
"The Union. Next to Liberty, the most dear."
Force Bill -1833
Compromise of 1833
significance of story - SC point of view
THE BANK WAR AND THE SECOND PARTY SYSTEM (288)
This is an interesting story - perhaps a bit too long - but it's more important that you
know the gist of the story rather than all the details.
What was the Bank War?
What were some of the key significances?
v- BANK WAR
Mr. Biddle's Bank
why did Jeffersonians oppose the BUS? (2)
Why was the BUS considered so sinister?
The Bank Veto and the Election of 1832
AJ.'s personal reservations
* Kitchen Cabinet
veto - first
and why? long explanation
v - mechanics
*************************** Killing the Bank (291)********************
Why was it a personal attack?
Monster bank - see cartoon
(Roger B. Taney - his role - we will meet him again as a Supreme Court Chief Justice)
v - censure
had Jackson gone beyond his stated powers as President?
The Emergence of the Whigs
Why do the Whigs emerge?
The Big Three - know name and the state they represent - Clay,
had AJ acted in a kingly/ dictatorial manner?
Anti-Masons believe in what?
The Rise and Fall of Van Buren
Van Buren - it might be easier to recall his term if you called him, "Martin Van Ruin"
PANIC OF 1837
Could he be re-elected?
Whigs - William Henry Harrison
v - balance the ticket
Tippecanoe and Tyler, too
Three parts of Henry Clay's American System 1) B.U.S
2) protective tariff
3) internal improvements
FEATURE ESSAY: GRASSROOTS DEMOCRACY IN MICHIGAN
sketch and painting by Bingham - see p. 277 - what's going on in painting? - classic
Why was politics seen as the best show in town?
v - bacchanalian
v - sanctimonious
How were hustings seen as being a democratic ritual?
How has technology put an end to stump speeches?
HEYDAY OF THE SECOND PARTY SYSTEM (296)
SECOND PARTY SYSTEM
****** Make a chart - on Left side = Whigs(W) and on right side = Democrats (D)
- page is full of comparisons such as
- positive liberal state (W) vs. negative liberal state(D)
- industrialists (W) vs. small farmer, workers (D)
-- JHM came up with almost 12 differences
NOW – how many of these Whig ideas mimic Federalist ideas?
FRQ - In what ways were the Whigs an offshoot of the Federalists?
CONCLUSION: DE TOCQUEVILLE'S WISDOM (297)
Alexis de Tocqueville - 1831/1832
* "Democracy in America" a foreign visitors wise and insightful
analysis of American life in the early 1830s.
v- "separate domestic sphere"
democracy and equality during Jacksonian era were meant for only
some of the people…deTocqueville
dates to know
1824 - corrupt b
1828 - AJ wins, tariff
1833 - Compromise
1837 - Panic
1840 - Whigs win
Explain the factors that contributed to the rise of democracy in the 1820s and 30s.
Why was "democracy" no longer thought of as a dangerous tendency by the 1820s?
How did industrialization influence the Jacksonian era?