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Chapter 2
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Study Guide 2
NEW WORLD EXPERIMENTS: ENGLAND'S SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY COLONIES

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Summary - The English establish colonies in North America starting in 1607 (VA) and ending in 1733 (GA). Different sorts of people migrated for different reasons to the three major colonial regions, North (New England), Middle and South. Overall, the English empire in America is characterized by a diversity of political institutions, economic arrangements and religious practices.
Profit and Piety (31)
* John Winthrop – Governor of MBC (Massachusetts Bay Colony)
* Sir. William Berkeley - VA's Governor
How do the two governors view each other with regard to Indian attacks?
How did the English settlements differ from Fr and Sp.?
v – entrepreneurs (and know the spelling

BREAKING AWAY (32)
What happened as a result of England's increasing population between 1580 and 1650?
English colonists crossed the Atlantic for many reasons (4)

The fundamental tension over who controls the constitutional power in British politics lies between the Crown and Parliament. This leads to the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell's (a Puritan) taking over in 1649, the Restoration of old rule by the Stuarts which led to the Glorious Revolution (1688). This begins the era of constitutional Monarchy when the power of Parliament increases, the country becomes ruled by laws and by the decisions of the voters. These three concepts will cross over to the American colonies.

FRQ - "Regardless of the exact timing of departure, English settlers brought with them ideas and assumptions that helped them make sense of their everyday experiences in an unfamiliar environment." Explain the quote. (p.33)

THE CHESAPEAKE: DREAMS OF WEALTH (33)
be sure you can spell Chesapeake
Three good reasons why Englishmen/women should settle in the American colonies
Entrepreneurs in Virginia
* v- joint-stock company
* London Company -- Virginia Company
* 1607 - James River - Jamestown - find on map
Which came first - cooperation or personal interests? Why?
Spinning Out of Control
* Captain John Smith - why is he considered a savior?
Pocahontas - later marries John Rolfe, moves to Eng. and dies there.
Look closely at the drawing's background on p.35 - Opechancanough vs. Smith
"starving time" - 1609-1610
Powhatan - 1622/1644 – tries to do what
ends in what?
Stinking Weed
John Rolfe
tobacco = gold = large scale immigration
House of Burgesses - first elective representative assembly - 1619
headright - attractive incentive
Time of Reckoning
What kind of colonists inhabited VA- describe the characteristics
Indentured servants
why did it seem natural for VA to embrace slavery?
"Death was omnipresent" (vocab) - significance on colonists? (2)
What were the two major killers
What happened in 1622?
Corruption and Reform
Royal Colony - meaning?
House of Burgesses does what?
What was VA daily life like?(6)
Compare this house in Chesapeake - 1680s with the house on p.44 (1668) MA
or p. 87 (1675)MA - big difference
Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics
1634 – what happens?
* Lord Baltimore - Catholic - place for Catholics
Mason-Dixon line - PA and MD - find the line on page 34 map
Sanctuary for?
elaborate social hierarchy/ feudal system - never took root - why?
* "Toleration Act" concerning Religion (1649) - does what?
*why written?
"liberty of conscience" - this term is good and is used repeatedly in place of "religious
freedom" which is a misleading concept
how did tobacco influence the colony?

REFORMING ENGLAND IN AMERICA (40)
*Separatists - Pilgrims - these people are not Puritans
Anglican services (after Am. Rev - called Episcopalians)
*William Bradford, "Of Plymouth Plantation"
*1620 - Mayflower - Cape Cod
Mayflower Compact – "civil body politick"
death and debts
Squanto - what good fortune
Massasoit -
What was daily life like in this colony?
v - husbandry
1691 - absorbed into MBC
"The Great Migration"
Puritans - stereotype vs. reality
sign of grace
"elect"
Purify the Church of England
Massachusetts Bay Colony - 1630 - Boston
What do you think of the picture of J. Winthrop - what do you notice?
* "A City on a Hill"- know the significance of this image
Great Migration - 1630 - 1640 - 16,000
describe the MA people and their daily life (3)
common sense of purpose = special covenant
v - covenant
* "city on a hill" - from J. Winthrop's lay sermon - "A Model of Christian Charity"
we will read this in class
v - ecclesiastic
v - "espoused communal rhetoric" means what? (three vocab words in a row)
* Congregationalism - what's the system?
Picture 43 - "meetinghouse" in a church - "town meetings" also in churches
"freeman"
* v- franchise
Was it a democracy nor a theocracy?
Role of the town and community?
FYI – Massachusetts still considers itself a "commonwealth"
v - commonwealth
Limits of Religious Dissent
*General Court in MBC = House of Burgesses in VA General Court
issues "Lawes and Liberties" - significance
religious toleration in MBC?
* Roger Williams - 1631
insisted on what three concepts
1636 - his fate? where? city?
* Anne Hutchinson - 1634
greater threat and a female
Antinomianism
= a person can gain divine inspiration independent of Bible or clergy
- shock; this would lead to what?
v- misogynist
exiled to RI
FYI – she would later move to CT where she will be killed by Indians -
- what do you think the Puritans of MBC said about her fate?

Featured Essay - CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN EARLY AMERICA (46-47)SKIM
Public executions - theatre performance - Interesting thesis
Thesis comes first then the overview
members of the community played roles and order of events must be correct -
what do you think - does it make sense?
reaffirms the traditional moral order and discourages vices
why would criminals be willing to play a role?
role of pamphlets
JMH wonderings: If public hangings were one way to maintain morals in a community but what happens once public hangings cease?
Mobility and Division
1) New Hampshire
2) Connecticut
T. Hooker
* Fundamental Orders - 1639 - significance?
3) Rhode Island - full of outcasts and dissenters
* Roger Williams - founded Providence – 1636
religious toleration exists in RI
Royal charter

DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE COLONIES (NY, NJ, PA, DE) (49)
Look at the map
FRQ - How did cultural diversity become a major influence on the economic, political
and ecclesiastical institutions of the Middle colonies?
Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson
v. merchant fleet
Henry Hudson -1609
New Amsterdam - Manhattan Island = NYC - 1613 - 1664 - British colony
New Netherland - what was daily life like? (6)
Confusion in New Jersey
v. quitrent
1702 - single Royal Colony
daily life in NJ? (4)

QUAKERS IN AMERICA (51)
Quakers- belief in?
aka "Society of Friends"/ Friends
Quaker Beliefs and Practice
Inner Lights - why was this a wonderfully liberating invitation?
v. stigma
What values did the Quakers practice?
Penn's Holy Experiment
* 1681 - William Penn - gets land
v. sole proprietor
v. gift horse in the mouth
Delaware
Philadelphia
"Holy Experiment"
* Frame of Government - promises the settlers what?
v. due process of law - meaning?
Settling Pennsylvania
Penn's source of income?
who were the settlers?
why did "its politics (take) on a quarrelsome quality"?
v. homogeneous
Was it a successful colony? why?
v. unicameral legislature - how many houses of government?

PLANTING THE CAROLINAS (54)
meaning -"the great diversity of population groups…discouraged southern sectionalism."
Proprietors of the Carolinas (1663)
8 powerful courtiers - VA to FL, from Atlantic to Pacific- amazing gift
The Barbadian Connection
Skim the first three paragraphs and last
Why did the pace of arriving immigrants slow down in the 1650s?
The Barbadian pioneers created in North America a society close to the Islands. What was it?
Charles town (after Charles II who granted Carolina to 8 friends) = Charleston
profitable crops were?
what is not mentioned is indigo
v. staple

MAJOR CHART (56) – As you prepare for the DEBATE, it might be a good idea to ……
a) group the colonies by major export
b) group the colonies by original purpose
c) create a bar graph that illustrates the estimated population circa 1700

THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA (56) skim
* James Oglethorpe - 1732
settled for two reasons
v. "utopian" experiment
Why did the colonists demand slave labor?

CONCLUSION: LIVING WITH DIVERSITY (58)
All of the colonies struggled for survival in the first phase but as they developed, distinct regional differences intensified and persisted; consequently, the people saw themselves as being distinct.

FRQ - If the colonies in the 17th C were so diverse, what did they have in common? Assess the relative importance of each one?

DATES to know for sure
1607 -J
1619/1619 – HOB/ Slaves
1620 – P
1622 – Powhatan #1 in VA
1630 - B
1636/1636 -CT/ Harvard/ R.Williams
1637 – Pequots War in MA/RI
1638 A. Hut
1639 – Fund Ord.
1644 – Powhatan #2 in VA
1649 – Toleration Act
1675 – King Philip's War or Metacomet - NE
1680 – Pueblo Revolt
1681 - PA
1732 - GA

v - Albion Seed - lecture 000 Albion = ancient Greek name for the British Isles

FRQs -
1) To what extent did the environment determine the cultures of the colonies?
2) Although seeking religious freedom, the Puritan leaders were religious bigots. Why?
3) What motives explain the development of representative assemblies in the various
colonies?
4) Through the 17th c, the English colonies in North America maintained closer and more
constant contact with England than they did with one another. Explain.
5) If the colonies in the 17th C were so diverse, what did they have in common and rate
each one's relative importance?

 

 


















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