Sample Bibliography Entries
Doc Bib: bibliography. Parenthetical citation requires a bibliography. With notes, a bibliography is optional; ask your teacher if you need one. If so, it follows endnotes on a separate page.
Number pages of bibliographies as you would number any other page. Center the heading "Works Cited" (without quotation marks) one inch from the top of the page. There are other kinds of bibliographies (such as lists of works consulted), but "Works Cited" is appropriate for most research papers. Instead of the two or three blank lines you leave after the title on your first page, leave one blank line after the heading. Double-space throughout the bibliography. Alphabetize all entries by the first word (usually the author's last name). Start entries at the left margin. If they are longer than one line, indent all subsequent lines one-half inch.
Microsoft Word users: Format > Paragraph > Special > Hanging
The title pages of books supply most of the information you need. Type the author's last name, a comma, first name, and any middle name or initial, followed by a period. Next comes the title, italicized or underlined. Capitalize the first word of subtitles, even if it is "a" or "the." Leave one space and list the place of publication, followed by a colon, one space, the publisher, a comma, and the date of publication, followed by a period. For places of publication, do not list states or nations unless they are not well known (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice). For publishers, list only the first word ("Prentice," "Harcourt"). Do not include business designations like "Co.," "Inc." or "Ltd." Use the abbreviations "P" for "Press" and "U" for "University":
ABBREVIATION: Oxford UP U of Chicago P
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Tuchman, Barbara W. The Proud Tower: A Portrait of the World Before the War 1890-1914.
New York: Macmillan, 1966.
An edited book.
Gregory, Richard L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1987.
A co-authored book. Only the first author's name is listed last-name-first. Put the authors' names in the order in which they appear on the title page.
Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer
and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. New Haven: Yale
An edition of a book.
Jordan, Frank, ed. The English Romantic Poets: A Review of Research and Criticism. 4th
ed. New York: MLA, 1985.
A translated book.
Mochulsky, Konstantin. Dostoevsky: His Life and Work. Trans. Michael A. Minihan.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 1967.
A republished book. Give the original publication date after the title.
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. 1847. New York: Bantam, 1981.
Two or more books by the same person. Use three hyphens for all but the first book. Alphabetize by the first word of the title.
Graff, Gerald. Beyond the Culture Wars: How Teaching the Conflicts Can Revitalize
American Education. New York: Norton, 1992.
---. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
A work in an anthology or collection.
O'Connor, Flannery. "Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern Fiction." Mystery and
Manners. Ed. Sally and Robert Fitzgerald. New York: Noonday,
For selections that are reprints of previously published work, include the original publication information, if it is available.
Granville-Barker, Harley. Prefaces to Shakespeare: Hamlet. Princeton: Princeton UP,
1946. 38-46. Rpt. as "Place Structure and Time Structure" in Hubler,
Edward, ed. Hamlet. New York: Signet, 1963. 212-20.
Cross-references. If you include two or more works from one collection, you do not need to recopy all the bibliographical information about the collection. Just list the collection itself, and indicate that each piece you list comes from it.
Bevington, David, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Hamlet. Englewood Cliffs:
Eliot, T. S. "Hamlet and His Problems." The Sacred Wood. London: Methuen, 1920. 87-94.
Rpt. in Bevington 22-26.
Knights, L. C. An Approach to Hamlet. London: Chatto, 1960. 55-69. Rpt. in Bevington
An introduction, preface or afterword.
Corngold, Stanley. Introduction. The Metamorphosis. By Franz Kafka. Trans. Corngold.
New York: Bantam, 1972.
An article in a reference book. List unsigned articles by title. If an article is signed, list its author first (often articles in reference books are signed by initials which are identified elsewhere in the book). If the reference book lists articles alphabetically, omit page numbers. When citing familiar reference books (like encyclopedias), omit full bibliographical information but identify the edition.
"The Civil War." Encyclopedia Americana. 1980 ed.
An article in a newspaper. List unsigned articles by title. If an article continues for several pages, list only the first page followed by a plus, as in the first example below. Abbreviate all months except May, June and July.
"Peace Talks Stall." Springfield Bee 21 Oct. 1996: A-1+.
Kent, Clark. "City Phone Booths Need Opaque Glass." Editorial. Daily Planet 3 July 1997:
An article in a magazine. Abbreviate all months except May, June and July.
Sanoff, Alvin P. "Did They Admit Me?" U.S. News and World Report 14 Apr. 1997: 48-58.
Strasser, Steven and Sudip Mazumdar. "A New Tiger." Newsweek. 4 Aug. 1997: 42-46.
An article in a professional journal. As you advance in school and undertake college-level assignments, you may need to do research in scholarly journals. Intended for experts, these journals are usually published less often than magazines (those called quarterlies are published four times a year). Some journals number each issue; the essay by Edwards listed below appears in issue 36 of Shakespeare Survey. Other journals consider all the issues for one year as a volume. Some of these journals begin each issue at page 1; others number all the issues in an annual volume continuously. In the entry below for Epstein's article, the number 86.2 means the essay appeared in volume 86, issue number 2 of Commentary. Always list the pages of the entire article, not just the pages which you cite.
Edwards, Philip. "Tragic Balance in Hamlet." Shakespeare Survey 36 (1983): 43-54.
Epstein, Joseph. "Who Killed Poetry?" Commentary 86.2 (Aug. 1988): 13-20.
Supplee, Curt. "Robot Revolution." National Geographic 192.1 (July 1997): 76-95.
Movies and television shows. For movies, only title, director, distributor and year are necessary, but you may include other information, such as names of performers, if it is pertinent to your paper.
From Here to Eternity. Dir. Fred Zinnemann. Perf. Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Clift,
Deborah Kerr, Frank Sinatra, and Donna Reed. Columbia, 1953.
"Spirits of the Forest." Nature. PBS. KHET, Honolulu. 31 July 1997.
An interview. The third example below is a published interview.
Coon, David P. Telephone interview. 25 Feb. 1997.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. Personal interview. 11 Oct. 1982.
Wilson, August. Interview. Bill Moyers: A World of Ideas. By Bill Moyers. New York:
Citation of electronic sources. While computer technology has made more sources of information available, it has also created greater need for citation and required new forms of citation. Some of the examples below are taken from Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 5th ed. (New York: MLA, 1998) and from Janice R. Walker (http:// www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html). If you have questions about citations which the Keables Guide does not answer, ask your teacher or librarian for help. The Web site listed above for Janice R. Walker provides additional information.
Online sources. Include the author's name if it is available. The last dates in the examples below (29 Mar. 1997, 20 Apr. 1997) indicate the dates when the researcher accessed the materials. You must include date of access because online publications can change from day to day as they are revised. Include the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) at the end of the citation. Enclose URLs in angle brackets. If a URL must be divided between two lines, break it only after a slash.
Coates, Steve. "A Dead Language Comes to Life on the Internet." New York Times
on the Web 28 Oct. 1996. 20 Apr. 1997<http://www.nytimes.com/
The Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. May 1995. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 14
Feb. 1997 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/>.
Subscription databases. Include the author's name if it is available.
Hanisch, Carola. "Powering Tomorrow's Cars." Environmental Science &
Technology 1 Nov. 1999: 458A. Science & Technology Digest.
Newsbank Science Source Collection. 30Nov. 2000 <http://
Liswood, Laura A. "Gender Politics and the Oval Office: Why Women Don't Run for
President." Baltimore Sun 31 Mar. 1999: 23A. Scholastic Universe.
Lexis-Nexis. 30 Nov. 2000 <http://www.lexis-nexis.com/
Potts, Michael and Matt Scanlon. "The Future of Solar is Now." Mother Earth News
18 Aug. 1995. Electric Lib. 30 Nov. 2000 <http://www.elibrary.com/
Wildstrom, Stephen H."A Big Boost for Net Privacy." Business Week 5 Apr. 1999: 23. Mas
Full-text Ultra. Ebsco Host. 30 Nov. 2000 <http://search.epnet.com>.
A publication on CD-ROM. Include the author's name if it is available.
Browning, Robert. "A Light Woman." World's Best Poetry on CD. CD-ROM. Chicago: Roth,
Gauch, Patricia Lee. "A Quest for the Heart of Fantasy." Newsweek (June 1994): 159-67.
ProQuest Resource One. CD-ROM. UMI. Dec. 1994.
Sawyer, Kathy. "Oceanography: Rising Tides." Washington Post 12 Dec. 1994: A2.
Newsbank Newsfile. CD-ROM. Newsbank. Jan. 1995.
Snow, Dean R. "Abenaki." Encyclopedia of World Cultures on CD-ROM. CD-ROM.
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